How the ankylosaurs got their club-like tails

Ankylosaurs were a group of herbivorous dinosaurs that were covered with bony armor composed of osteoderms (bones formed in their skin), much like the mammalian glyptodonts. Many of the ankylosaurs had osteoderms flanking the tips of their tails, making a club-like structure that may have been used to ward off predators or compete for females. A recent paper [1] …

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Sea scorpions: the stuff of nightmares

A recent discovery prompted me to discuss a group of now extinct animals known as the eurypterids or sea scorpions.     These aquatic invertebrates, though not truly scorpions, share similarities with scorpions, as well as spiders and horseshoe crabs. Geological evidence suggests they lived from approximately 460 to 252 million years ago (Ordovician-Permian). Though some were a relatively small, yet respectable, …

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